纽扣菇是常见的, familiar white mushrooms that are used in a wide range of recipes and cooking techniques, 从蛋挞、煎蛋卷到意大利面, 意大利调味饭, 和披萨. 它们是 蘑菇的家庭, and their mild flavor and meaty texture make them extremely versatile.
按钮的蘑菇 are the immature form of the edible fungus 双孢蘑菇，其中还包括 cremini蘑菇 褐蘑菇. In fact, all of these mushrooms are the same mushroom at different stages of maturity. 按钮的蘑菇 are the least mature, have a pale white color, and measure 1 to 3 inches across. The next phase of development brings us cremini蘑菇, 哪些是中间阶段, 小的，略带褐色的, 最后是波多贝罗蘑菇, 哪些是最大的, 深棕色, 也是物种最成熟的阶段.
按钮的蘑菇, also called white mushrooms or white button mushrooms, 最受欢迎的蘑菇品种是什么, making up 90 percent of the mushrooms consumed in the United States. 它们也是最便宜的, 而且要有最温和的味道, though they readily absorb the flavors that they're cooked with. They can be eaten raw, and cooked via sautéeing, stir-frying, grilling, braising, and roasting.
按钮的蘑菇 have a relatively high water content relative to their more mature counterparts. This means that cooking them takes a little bit longer than cooking cremini or portobellos. Undercooked button mushrooms can have a slightly squishy consistency, but cooking them longer will cook away their water content, 让它们的密度更大, 几乎多肉的纹理.
Since they grow in the ground, button mushrooms can sometimes have particles of dirt on them. In recent decades it was commonplace to brush the dirt off without wetting the mushrooms because 这是担心 that rinsing them would cause them to absorb water like sponges. 但 button mushrooms are already saturated with water—their water content is around 92 percent. 如果你浸泡了一段时间, 它们可能会吸收更多的水, but rinsing away the dirt won't have any appreciable effect on their moisture content.
同样的, 一些厨师, especially those with old-school fine-dining training, recommend peeling mushrooms before cooking. 这是使用 削皮刀, reaching under the cap of the mushroom with the edge of the knife and pulling the skin toward the top of the cap. This was done to make the mushroom look nice, 作为一种清除污垢的方法, and also because the skins on older mushrooms can sometimes be tough. 但是有了纽扣菇, 韧性不是问题, and rinsing is an easier and equally effective method of removing dirt. 所以剥皮绝对是可选的.
按钮的蘑菇 are easy to slice and don't require much pressure from the chef's knife. Their flesh is somewhat delicate, and they should be handled gently. They bruise easily, and when that happens, the white flesh turns first pink and then brown.
按钮的蘑菇 are great in pasta dishes, 用旺火炒的菜, 煎蛋, 沙拉, 汤, 酱汁, 作为披萨和汉堡的配料, 作为配菜, 用黄油招待sautéed, 草本植物, 和大蒜, especially alongside grilled steaks and other meats.
按钮的蘑菇 taste alternately earthy, meaty, and brothy, a combination of flavors known as 鲜味, though their flavor is comparatively mild. This 鲜味 flavor comes from a type of amino acid called glutamate, 蘑菇中天然存在的是什么, 其他食物也一样, 比如帕尔马干酪和凤尾鱼. 草菇, 鲜味没有那么强烈, because their relatively high water content effectively dilutes it. 但, as mushrooms mature into their cremini and portobello phases, 它们的含水量减少了, 鲜味也增强了.
Here are a few easy recipes you can prepare using button mushrooms.
按钮的蘑菇 are widely available at supermarkets, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. 在杂货店, look for loose mushrooms in the produce department, 选择光滑的, 丰满, 和公司. 一个封闭的面纱, 意思是帽子下面的部分, 表示蘑菇更新鲜, 当揭开面纱时, 是什么露出了下面的黑色鳃, 意味着它不新鲜, although these mushrooms may have a richer flavor. Avoid mushrooms that appear dried or shriveled.
按钮的蘑菇 are also available in plastic-wrapped containers, which are less than ideal since you can't inspect them individually. And, you can also buy them sliced, although these have a shorter shelf life.
Because button mushrooms contain so much water, they are prone to turning moldy or slimy. The best way to avoid this is to use them as soon as possible. 但 storing them in the fridge for two to three days is fine provided they aren't encased in plastic, 会锁住水分, which in turn can cause them to turn slimy. Avoid storing whole mushrooms in plastic bags.
To preserve freshness, buy whole mushrooms and store them loose in the 保鲜储藏格抽屉 on the humid setting, with a clean paper towel underneath them. If you buy the sliced kind that is sold in a container with a plastic wrapper over them, remove the plastic wrap and store them in their container, 发现了, 在保鲜柜抽屉里.
幸福,罗莎莉马里昂. Researchers Study Benefits of White 但ton Mushrooms. 美国农业部. 2010年7月29日.
蘑菇,白色按钮. 食物data central, 美国农业部