工作妇女对食品影响的历史

Women are part of a dynamic history of food advertising and consumer culture

A Black woman wearing protective face mask buying grocery at a supermarket.

Luis Alvarez /盖蒂图片社

不断发展以满足新一代消费者的需求, the food industry pivoted quickly to cater to millions of 女性 working from home during the 全球大流行. “可午餐”一则引人注目的广告 有一个女人, 张大嘴巴表示震惊或恼怒, 指向她的任务清单:虚拟学习, 做午餐装个面具,坏了的水槽, 晚餐准备.

女性是大多数消费品牌的首要考虑对象. Part of a dynamic history of food advertising and consumer culture, 午餐ables is just the latest in a long line of packaged food products marketed to 女性 juggling work, 家庭生活, 和其他所有的事情.

销售女士. 消费者

很久以前 女性 成为文化上被美国工作场所接受的成员, packaged food companies understood the importance of 女性’s food-related labor in the home. These companies recognized 女性’s purchasing power, especially related to household goods. This was thanks to home economists like Christine Frederick who published 销售女士. 消费者 这本书概述了“普通太太”的购买习惯. 消费者.”

女人烘焙饼干

GraphicaArtis / Getty Images

而弗雷德里克自己则优先考虑独立, she expected her book to maintain a domestic lifestyle that focused on family and the home. 弗雷德里克的研究中没有涉及到大量低收入人群, unmarried 女性 as well as 女性 of color who already established themselves within the public workplace. 尽管有这样重大的疏忽, white 女性 of means and their domestic social expectations became the general target of food advertising for many years to come.

社会变革

几个重大的社会变化, including the success of the suffrage movement and the massive shortage of workers during the World Wars, 导致了美国劳动力中女性的稳步增加. 随着新一代进入职场, food companies continued to prey upon 女性’s societal expectations concerning their primary roles as mothers and wives. Companies pandered to housewives’ anxieties over the quality and overall health of the food they fed their husbands and children. 其他的担忧包括平衡的能力 忙碌的生活方式 or 杂货店的预算-这两个问题ca88会员登录入口今天仍然可以在包装食品中看到.

工作女孩的食物

很明显,很大一部分女性 做了 work outside the home, companies found ways to market foods relying on claims of boosted 能源 和职业道德. 其中许多产品最初是面向男性销售的, 但在战争期间转向吸引新就业的女性.

战时拉斯顿碎全麦麦片的广告宣传 男女都有,口号是“我有工作要做”!” The woman sported a mechanic’s uniform with the focal point on her new occupation and patriotic duty: “Uncle Sam is counting on me.” Other foods that boasted 能源-giving properties for 女性 on the job included candy bars, 如金手指食品, 包括可口可乐和百事可乐在内的碳酸饮料.

蛋糕粉和烹饪创意

One of the most recognizable products marketed to 女性 for its timesaving was boxed 蛋糕粉. 20世纪30年代引入, 蛋糕混合粉为女性提供了烘焙捷径, while still allowing them to participate in the creative process of cake decoration. This marketing strategy relied on the belief that 女性 still shouldered the responsibilities of homemaking despite working outside the home. The prospect of failure in either task was simply out of the question.

鸟的蛋糕粉广告

图片发布/赫尔顿档案馆/盖蒂图片社

这些混合, 由ca88会员登录入口今天熟知的一些大品牌生产, 比如邓肯·海恩斯和贝蒂·克罗克, changed the way 女性 thought about “baking from scratch” and how it fit into their busier, 迅速现代化的生活方式. 公司向家庭主妇推销这些混合产品, they undoubtedly appealed to the scores of working 女性 employed outside the home who still dreamed of baking even on busy days.

便利的文化

Post-war convenience culture led to a bounty of packaged foods that capitalized on the potential of the working woman’s pocketbook. These packaged and often pre-cooked foods allowed 女性 to spend less time in the kitchen as they often required fewer ingredients and kitchen tools to prepare.

除了很多有性别区分的饮食, convenience foods weren’t explicitly made for 女性—companies simply realized who was doing most of the grocery shopping.

Some of the more famous convenience foods marketed to working 女性 include quick desserts like JELL-O instant pudding (introduced around the 1930s), 像汉堡帮手(发明于1970年)这样的炉顶盒装食品, 无数的“健康” 格兰诺拉麦片 酒吧(20世纪80年代和90年代健身的主要场所), and many instant products that only needed a quick rotation in the microwave or the addition of hot water. 除了很多有性别区分的饮食, convenience foods weren’t explicitly made for 女性—companies simply realized who was doing most of the grocery shopping.

果冻的广告

Fotosearch / Getty Images

烹饪技术

It wasn’t just food companies that profited, but cooking equipment brands, too. 慢煮,稍后再说 微波 为新的营销活动铺平了道路, 具有讽刺意味的是, 提供完全相反的烹饪风格和速度. 而微波炉是在1946年发明的, it took awhile for the general public to warm up to the costly appliance. 大约十年后, the microwave found its way into most homes along with a spurred craze for quick frozen dinners marketed to working 女性 that exists to this day. 

使用微波炉的女人

图片展示/图片档案/盖蒂图片

未来的女性?

尽管几十年来食品领域取得了革命性的进步, 厨房的技术, 和营养, 女性 are still overwhelmingly in charge of food- and cooking-related tasks 在当代美国家庭中. While some companies have worked hard to create genderless advertising, statistics still define who ultimately buys their products in the grocery store.

More 女性 are recognizing their impact on the food industry and taking back ownership of their purchasing power. 然而, 这是一个缓慢的变化, and one that's starting with younger generations who already prioritize 女性's workplace equality and sometimes even avoid products with distinct gendered advertising altogether. 随着工作场所的不断发展, history has proven 女性 will make their food purchases work for them and their schedule.

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  1. 新闻: 午餐ables aims to reach overwhelmed parents with easy lunch options. (n.d.). http://www.brand-innovators.com/news/lunchables-aims-to-reach-overwhelmed-parents-with-easy-lunch-options

  2. 弗雷德里克,C. M. (1929). 销售女士. 消费者. 纽约,商业交易所. http://archive.org/details/sellingmrsconsum00fredrich

  3. The history of 女性’s work and wages and how it has created success for us all. (2020年,5月7日). 布鲁金斯学会. http://www.Brookings.edu/essay/the-history-of-womens-work-and-wages-and-how-it-has-created-success-for-us-all/

  4. 碎拉斯顿麦片早餐. Com. (n.d.). http://www.mrbreakfast.com/cereal_detail.asp?id=319

  5. 西北,1615升. 华盛顿圣,800套房 & 查询,维. 20036 usa202 - 419 - 4300 | M.-857-8562 | F.-419-4372 | M. (n.d.). 在你.S. 对夫妻来说,女人做饭和买东西比男人多. 皮尤研究中心. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/09/24/among-u-s-couples-women-do-more-cooking-and-grocery-shopping-than-men/